Courses

African Language Program

Harvard University, through the Department of African and African American Studies (AAAS), boasts the world’s foremost African Language Program, with over 30 languages offered.  Established in 2003, the African Language Program offers instruction in more than ten languages every semester.  African languages can be taken to fulfill the foreign language requirement for Harvard College. These languages are a core part of the African Studies Track in the Department of African and African American Studies (AAAS) and relate well to a variety of courses within Harvard College, and other constituents of Harvard University.

For more information on the African Language Program, please visit the AAAS website.

Fall 2015

Faculty of Arts & Sciences

African & African American Studies 20. Introduction to African Languages and Cultures
John Mugane

Monday, 2:00pm – 4:00pm

This introduction to African languages and cultures explores how sub-Saharan Africans use language to understand, organize, and transmit (culture, history, etc.) indigenous knowledge to successive generations. Language serves as a road map to comprehending how social, political, and economic institutions and processes develop: from kinship structures and the evolution of political offices to trade relations and the transfer of environmental knowledge. As a Social Engagement course, AAAS 20 will wed scholarly inquiry and academic study to practical experience and personal involvement in the community. Students will be given the opportunity to study Africans, their languages, and their cultures from the ground up, not only through textbooks and data sets but through personal relationships, cultural participation, and inquisitive explorations of local African heritage communities. Throughout the semester you will be asked to employ video production, ethnographic research, creative writing, “social-portraiture,” GIS mapping, and linguistic study as you engage with Africans, their languages, and their cultures. By examining linguistic debates and cultural traditions and interrogating their import in the daily lives of Boston-area Africans, we hope to bridge the divide between grand theories and everyday practices, between intellectual debates and the lived experiences of individuals, between the American academy and the African world. Ultimately, this course aims to place Africans themselves in the center of the academic study of Africa.

Note: This course, when taken for a letter grade, meets the General Education requirement for Societies of the World.

Credits: 4

African & African American Studies 105X. Anthropology and Africa
George Paul Meiu

Wednesday, 10:00am – 12:00pm

Africa has occupied a central place in the making of anthropology as a discipline. If early ethnographic studies of African contexts generated leading theories of society, contemporary anthropologists made livelihoods on the continent’s key sites for understanding the political, economic and cultural dynamics of modernity and global capitalism. And, while anthropological discourses at times have been complicit in the making of dominant ideologies, they have also played a central role in critiquing hegemonic tropes and unraveling their effects. This course explores the relationship between, on the one hand, the discourses, practices, and politics of anthropology as a discipline and, on the other hand, “Africa” as an object of knowledge, an ideological category, a source of identity and collective consciousness, and a geo-political context of life. Students will explore how lives, subjectivities, and intimacies on the continent mediate and are shaped by global historical processes and how anthropologists have inhabited and tried to grasp such contexts. Throughout this course, students will acquire a critical conceptual vocabulary and a set of rigorous analytic skills that will allow them to think deeper about historical and cultural phenomena in Africa and about the political potentials of various forms of knowledge production. We ask: what do ethnographies of Africa offer us by means of understanding the world at large? And what may anthropology offer us by way of crafting futures in Africa and beyond?

Credits: 4

African & African American Studies 111. Spectral Fictions, Savage Phantasms: Race and Gender in Anti-Racist South African & African America
Biodun Jeyifo

Wednesday, 1:00pm – 3:00pm

Why have social orders like Apartheid South Africa and White Supremacy in segregated America that are based on extreme racial, gender and national oppression always generated often violent, hallucinatory fictions of the racial and gender identities of the oppressed? And why have the oppressed in turn often internalized these sorts of fictions and also produced counter-fictions that more or less conform to the same violent, phantasmic logic? In this course, we will explore how these fictions and counter-fictions are reproduced and challenged in some of the most powerful, canonical works of drama, fiction and cinema by South African and African American authors and filmmakers. As the Nigerian author, Chinua Achebe once famously remarked: “where one thing stands, another thing will stand beside it.” To this end, we will pay special attention in the course to how, both in form and in content, race and gender always seem, constitutively, to intersect in these fictions and counter-fictions. The course is thus a study in the dark, violent but generative cultural unconscious of modern racialized and gendered identities.

Credits: 4

African & African American Studies 198X. Scientific Racism: A History

Wednesday, 10:00am – 12:00pm

This course focuses on the history of “race” as a category of difference and explores why “race” has become a globally-accepted idiom to classify humans. It assesses the prominent roles that science and scientists have played in the process of naturalizing “race” and analyzes how “scientific” theories of race were developed and disseminated globally in the modern period. We trace the formation of these ideas in the North Atlantic, their diffusion to various areas of the world, and the manner in which cultural and political elites adopted or challenged them. We will devote considerable time to the emergence of eugenics, the science of racial improvement, in Europe, the Americas, and Africa and study the process of institutionalization of this science in Nazi Germany and elsewhere, including the United States. A final section of the course discusses the impact of contemporary science on ideas of race. Students in this class will work with texts and archival materials related to these scientists, some of whom were Harvard faculty.

Credits: 4

African & African American Studies 209A. Africa Rising? New African Economies/Cultures and Their Global Implications
Jean Comaroff, John Comaroff

Mondays, 12:00pm – 1:30pm, 6:15pm – 8:00pm

In a story titled Africa Rising (2011), The Economist argued that the continent epitomizes both the “transformative promise of [capitalist ] growth and its bleakest dimensions”. This workshop will explore Africa’s changing place in the world – and the new economies, legalities, socialities, and cultural forms that have arisen there. It will also interrogate the claim that the African present is a foreshadowing of processes beginning to occur elsewhere; that, therefore, it is a productive source of theory about current conditions world-wide.

Note: The workshop, open to faculty and students, will meet Mondays from 6:00-7:30. 15 students will be permitted to take it as a course; they will also meet on Mondays, 12:00-1:30. Grades will be based on participation and a term essay.

Credits: 4

Anthropology 98ZA. Junior Tutorial in Social Anthropology
Ramyar Rossoukh

TBA

Junior tutorials in Social Anthropology explore critical theoretical issues related to a single ethnographic region (eg. South Asia, Africa, Latin America). The issues and areas change from year to year, but the purpose remains the same: to give students a chance to grapple with advanced readings and to experience the ways that ideas and theories can be applied and critically analyzed in ethnographic studies.

Credits: 4

Anthropology 1401. Human Migration and US-Mexico Borderlands: Moral Dilemmas and Sacred Bundles
David L. Carrasco

Tuesday, 2:00pm – 4:00pm

Responding to one of the major political, economic and religious developments of our times, this seminar locates the immigration crisis of the Mexico-U.S. borderlands within the epic context of human migration in history and global perspectives. The first part of the seminar will read and critique a series of books and articles about human migration, Mexican migrations to the U.S. in the last 120 years and the enigma and fluidity of national borders. The seminar will then develop a comparative perspective on immigration by comparing Mexican migrations with migrations from a) Latin America to the U.S, b) the African American migration within the U.S. from south to north, c) contemporary migrations from Africa to countries of the European Union. Questions such as ‘what economic and political forces cause people to migrate?’, ‘do they migrate as individuals or families?’. ‘How do walls, fences and borders work and what do they mean?’ and ‘what is immigration reform-anyway?’ will be explored. We will examine the profound economic and moral dilemmas facing migrants, families, sending and receiving countries. The course uses Professor Carrasco’s concept of ‘sacred bundles’ to explore the question ‘what cultural and religious resources help migrants survive the ordeal of migration and establish new identities?’

Credits: 4

Anthropology 3100 001. Old World Archaeology (Europe, Asia, and Africa)
Clifford Lamberg-Karlovsky

TBA

TBA

Credits: 4

Anthropology 3100 002. Old World Archaeology (Europe, Asia, and Africa)
Richard Meadow

TBA

TBA

Credits: 4

Bio Sciences in Public Health 322. Study of Epidemiologic and Biological Characteristics of HIV Viruses in Africa
Phyllis Kanki

TBA

TBA

Credits: 4

Culture & Belief 16. Performance, Tradition and Cultural Studies: An Introduction to Folklore and Mythology
Stephen Mitchell

Monday and Wednesday, 9:00am – 10:00am

Examines major forms of folklore (e.g., myths, legends, epics, beliefs, rituals, festivals) and the theoretical approaches used in their study. Analyzes how folklore shapes national, regional, and ethnic identities, as well as daily life; considers the function of folklore within the groups that perform and use it, employing materials drawn from a wide range of areas (e.g., South Slavic oral epics, American occupational lore, Northern European ballads, witchcraft in Africa and America, Cajun Mardi Gras, Sub-Saharan African oral traditions).

Note: Required of Concentrators and for the Secondary Field in Folklore and Mythology. This course fulfills the requirement that one of the eight General Education courses also engage substantially with Study of the Past.

Credits: 4

English 108C. World Theater
Ju Yon Kim

Monday and Wednesday, 1:00pm – 2:00pm

This course will examine theatrical forms and practices developed in Africa, Asia, and the Americas, as well as modern and contemporary intercultural performances. Exploring a wide range of performances, including Chinese regional theater, puppet theaters, theater of the oppressed, and postcolonial theater, students will investigate how notions of traditional, national, and global theater have been consolidated and contested.

Credits: 4

French 182. French, Francophone, and Postcolonial Studies
Francoise Lionnet

Tuesday, 6:30pm – 9:00pm

This course examines texts that foreground pressing concerns of the postcolonial world: in Africa, the Creole islands of the Caribbean and Indian Ocean, Europe and South Asia. Close attention will be paid to the relationship of a colonial culture to that of the metropolis, the functioning of minority and majority languages, and the narrative techniques that make these differences manifest in fictional and theoretical writing. The course includes discussion of postcolonial theory and its many debates.

Note: This course is jointly offered with Wellesley College and will take place on the Wellesley campus. Please contact the department with questions regarding transportation.

Credits: 4

Freshman Seminar 37Y. Muslim Voices in Contemporary World Literature
Ali S. Asani

Tuesday, 7:00pm – 9:30pm

What do Muslims think of acts of terrorism committed in the name of Islam, the mixing of religion with politics, the status and rights of women, the hegemony of the “West”? This seminar investigates the viewpoints of prominent Muslim writers on these and other “hot button” issues as reflected in novels, short stories and poetry from different parts of the world. Explores a range of issues facing Muslim communities in various parts of the world by examining the impact of colonialism, nationalism, globalization and politicization of Islam on the search for a modern Islamic identity. Readings of Muslim authors from the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Europe and America.

Credits: 4

Freshman Seminar 41D. Sick and Tired of being Sick and Tired: Health Disparities and African Americans
Evelynn Hammonds

Thursday, 4:00pm – 5:00pm

Since the arrival of Africans from Africa to America, their health and health care has been a critical issue for the nation. From the era of slavery to the present African Americans have been disproportionately burdened by disease and ill health. This course examines this issue over the long time frame from the 17th century to the present. It will explore the strategies and practices that African Americans employed to improve their health care. It will also examine, the ways that cities, states and the federal government supported or ignored the health of African Americans.

Credits: 4

Gikuyu AA. Elementary Gikuyu
John Mugane

TBA

Gikuyu is a Bantu language spoken by Kenya’s most populous ethnic group. The Gikuyu are among Africa’s most recognized peoples because of the Mau Mau freedom fighters who were mainly Gikuyu.

Note: Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

Gikuyu BA. Intermediate Gikuyu
John Mugane

TBA

Continuation of Gikuyu A. Gikuyu is a Bantu language spoken by Kenya’s most populous ethnic group. The Gikuyu are among Africa’s most recognized peoples because of the Mau Mau freedom fighters who were mainly Gikuyu.

Note: Students must complete the second term of this course (Gikuyu BB) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

Government 20. Foundations of Comparative Politics
George Soroka

Monday and Wednesday, 10:00am – 11:00am

Provides an introduction to key concepts and theoretical approaches in comparative politics. Major themes include the causes of democratization, economic development, ethnic conflict, and social revolutions; as well as the role of the state, political institutions, and civil society. Examines and critically evaluates different theoretical approaches to politics including modernization, Marxist, cultural, institutionalist, and leadership-centered approaches. Compares cases from Africa, Asia, Europe, Middle East and Latin America to provide students with grounding in the basic tools of comparative analysis.

Note: This course, when taken for a letter grade, meets the General Education requirement for Societies of the World.

Credits: 4

Government 94AP. Democracy and Authoritarianism in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1950s - Present
Cheryl Brown Welch

Monday, 2:00pm – 4:00pm

This course looks at broad trends in the political dynamics of sub-Saharan Africa. The first half focuses on the brief moment of political pluralism at Independence and then authoritarian politics during the Cold War. The second half explores various aspects of multi-party politics since 1990. Students apply the theoretical concepts of each week to a country of their choosing. These exercises build in to a research prospectus due at the end of the semester.

Credits: 4

History of Art & Architecture 192M. Early African Art (to 1750)
Suzanne Blier

Monday, 1:00pm – 3:00pm

This course explores key art historical and architectural traditions in Africa from earliest man to the eigteenth century.

Credits: 4

Harvard Divinity School 2030. Religion and AIDS
Lynne Gerber

Monday, 4:00pm – 6:00pm

This course uses AIDS as a case through which to examine questions of religion, morality, and sickness. We will look at various religious engagements with AIDS, analyzing how they shape the experiences of people with AIDS, address the needs of communities impacted by AIDS, and influence institutional and political responses to AIDS. The course will be interdisciplinary, drawing on literature from anthropology, sociology, theology, and history. It will consider religion and AIDS in a range of times and places, including the U.S., southern Africa and Russia.

Credits: 4

Harvard Divinity School 3140. Human Migration & US-Mexico Borderlands: Moral Dilemmas & Sacred Bundles in Comparative Perspectives
David L. Carrasco

Tuesday, 2:00pm – 4:00pm

Responding to one of the major political, economic and religious developments of our times, this seminar locates the immigration crisis of the Mexico-U.S. borderlands within the epic context of human migration in history and global perspectives. The first part of the seminar will read and critique a series of books and articles about human migration, Mexican migrations to the U.S. in the last 120 years and the enigma and fluidity of national borders. The seminar will then develop a comparative perspective on immigration by comparing Mexican migrations with migrations from a) Latin America to the U.S, b) the African American migration within the U.S. from south to north, c) contemporary migrations from Africa to countries of the European Union. Questions such as ‘what economic and political forces cause people to migrate?’, ‘do they migrate as individuals or families?’. ‘How do walls, fences and borders work and what do they mean?’ and ‘what is immigration reform-anyway?’ will be explored. We will examine the profound economic and moral dilemmas facing migrants, families, sending and receiving countries. The course uses Professor Carrasco’s concept of ‘sacred bundles’ to explore the question ‘what cultural and religious resources help migrants survive the ordeal of migration and establish new identities?’

Note: Jointly offered as Anthropology 1401.

Credits: 4

Harvard Divinity School 3366. Islam in Modern West Africa
Ousmane Oumar Kane

Tuesday and Thursday, 1:00pm – 2:00pm

At the beginning of European colonial rule in the early 20th century, less than a half of the West African population was Muslim. By independence from European colonial rule in the early 1960s, close to 90 percent of many West African countries have been Islamized. More people converted to Islam during the six decades of European colonial rule than in the preceding thousand year of slow Islamization. The aim of this lecture course is to analyze contemporary West African Muslim societies with particular reference to the twenty and twenty first centuries. This course will look at how colonialism created a favorable ground for the spread of Islam. It will also address the main institutions and movements of modern Islam in West Africa as well as the postcolonial transformations in education, gender, the arts, interfaith relations etc. In addition to the discussion section in English, this lecture course will also offer a section in Arabic in which participants will be initiated to the intellectual production of Muslim intellectuals in Africa.

Note: Jointly offered as Islamic Civilizations 176.

Credits: 4

Human Evolutionary Biology 1335. Behavioral Ecology of Chimpanzees
 Zarin P. Machanda

Tuesday, 2:00pm – 5:00pm

An advanced seminar on current topics in behavioral ecology research of chimpanzees and bonobos. Topics will include: foraging, dominance, cooperation, adolescence, reproductive strategies, culture, ranging, cognition, molecular ecology, and relationships. We will discuss behavioral flexibility of chimpanzees between different communities across Africa and learn how to collect and analyze behavioral data. We will compare the behavior of chimpanzees and bonobos with that of humans and examine how these species might serve as models for human evolution.

Note: This course counts towards the research seminar requirement in HEB.

Credits: 4

Human Evolutionary Biology 1540. Human Migration
 Noreen Tuross

Tuesday, 1:00pm – 3:00pm

The course will explore human migration at several scales, time depths and data sources, including the movement of humans out of Africa and the complex movements of the first farmers across Europe. We will explore the impacts that climates and disease burden have had on human migrations, and discuss recent movements of people and the reasons for migratory behavior in humans. In addition, a personal migration story will be developed by the class.

Credits: 4

History & Literature 90BQ. Early Modern Encounters
Michael Tworek

Monday, 1:00pm – 3:00pm

This course explores the dynamic and diverse movement of people, texts, ideas, and objects across the world during the early modern period (1300-1800). Each week approaches these global exchanges through a case study of a cross-cultural encounter from the Americas and Asia to Africa and Europe. The course will examine the major developments of the period such as the Renaissance, Reformation, Age of Discovery, and the Enlightenment from global and critical perspectives.

Credits: 4

History & Literature 90BX. World War I in Fiction, Film, Poetry, and Memoir
Lauren Kaminsky, Steven Biel

Friday, 10:00am – 12:00am

On the centenary of WWI, this seminar will explore a wide range of representations of the conflict that began in the Balkans but swept through Europe to the Middle East and Russia, to the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, to the Mediterranean, Baltic, and Black Seas, and drew in soldiers and civilians from Africa, Asia, and the Americas. By looking closely at materials across genres and cultural forms, we will examine the contradictions and contingencies of the war that set the stage for a century of political, social, and cultural history.

Credits: 4

History 2707. Comparative Slavery & the Law: Africa, Latin America, & the US: Seminar
Emmanuel Akyeampong, Alejandro de la Fuente

Tuesday, 1:00pm – 3:00pm

This seminar surveys the booming historiographies of slavery and the law in Latin America, the United States, and Africa. Earlier generations of scholars relied heavily on European legal traditions to draw sharp contrasts between U.S. and Latin American slavery. The most recent scholarship, however, approaches the legal history of slavery through slaves’ legal initiatives and actions. These initiatives were probably informed by the Africans’ legal cultures, as many of them came from societies where slavery was practiced. Our seminar puts African legal regimes (customary law, Islamic law) at the center of our explorations concerning slaves’ legal actions in the Americas.

Credits: 4

Near Eastern Languages & Civilizations 176. Islam in Modern West Africa
Ousmane Oumar Kane

Tuesday and Thursday, 1:00pm – 2:00pm

At the beginning of European colonial rule in the early 20th century, less than a half of the West African population was Muslim. By independence from European colonial rule in the early 1960s, close to 90 percent of many West African countries have been Islamized. More people converted to Islam during the six decades of European colonial rule than in the preceding thousand year of slow Islamization. The aim of this lecture course is to analyze contemporary West African Muslim societies with particular reference to the twenty and twenty first centuries. This course will look at how colonialism created a favorable ground for the spread of Islam. It will also address the main institutions and movements of modern Islam in West Africa as well as the postcolonial transformations in education, gender, the arts, interfaith relations etc. In addition to the discussion section in English, this lecture course will also offer a section in Arabic in which participants will be initiated to the intellectual production of Muslim intellectuals in Africa.

Note: Jointly offered as Harvard Divinity School 3366.

Credits: 4

Music 208RS. Ethnomusicology: Seminar
Ingrid Monson

Thursday, 10:00am – 12:00pm

African Music and Theory from the South. This seminar explores leading contemporary cultural theorists of Africa such as Achille Mbembe, Jean and John Comaroff, Kofi Agawu, and Ngugi Wa Thiong’o in relationship to classic issues in the study of African musics. Beginning with popular, regional, and international musical genres the course takes hybridity as a point of departure and then examines historical presumptions about the nature of tradition in the ethnomusicological literature on African music. Classic issues in African music, such as rhythm, transcription, orality, social engagement, and religion are explored in the context of the anthropological and postcolonial literatures.

Credits: 4

Romance Languages & Literature 145. Transatlantic Africa & Brazil
Josiah Blackmore

Monday, 2:00pm – 4:00pm

A study of the transatlantic enterprise between Portugal, Brazil, and Africa. We will scrutinize the historical and imaginative encounters with Africa and Brazil from the Middle Ages to Brazilian Romanticism. Topics include oceanic empire, monsters, shipwreck, cannibalism, the Atlantic slave trade, and debates on the African and Brazilian/New World indigene. Authors include Aristotle, Pliny, Zurara, Álvaro Velho, Caminha, Las Casas, Camões, and Castro Alves, as well as contemporary critics.

Note: Conducted in Portuguese or English, to be determined by class composition. A reading knowledge of Portuguese or Spanish helpful but not required.

Credits: 4

Social Studies 98OR. Decolonizing Development in Africa
Kerry Chance

Monday, 1:30pm – 3:30pm

This course asks how development has shaped decolonization on the African continent. We interrogate antinomies of African “tradition” and “modernity” that inform development processes and interventions, notably through legacies of liberal state-making, divisions of labor and economic value, and the management of impoverished populations. Rather than approaching these worlds as without history or innovation, the course tracks their complex interactions with new technologies and infrastructures of belonging, work, and identity. Through social theory and ethnography, we attend to the impact of post-colonial development in the making of the current world order.

Credits: 4

Sociology 263. Historical Sociology: Cultural and Institutional Perspectives
Orlando Patterson

Thursday, 2:00pm – 4:00pm

The seminar explores the emergence, dynamics and interaction of cultural, structural and institutional processes in the development, and underdevelopment, of capitalism in western and non-western societies. Among the topics explored are: merchant capital, network channeling and cultural change in the late medieval and renaissance periods; institutional and imperial factors in the rise of West European capitalism; networks and informal institutions in the rise of capitalism in China; honorific individualism and networks of aesthetic publics in in the making of modern Japanese culture; and colonialism and the institutional and cultural origins of development and underdevelopment in Africa and the Caribbean. Our readings and discussions will be guided by the recurring theoretical problems of causality, origins, continuity and change in institutional and cultural processes.

Credits: 4

Swahili AA. Elementary Swahili
John Mugane

Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, 10:00am – 11:00am

A study of the lingua franca of East Africa at the elementary level. Contact hours supplemented by language lab sessions. Emphasis on written expression, reading comprehension, and oral fluency.

Note: Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

Swahili BA. Intermediate Swahili
John Mugane

TBA

Continuation of Swahili A. A study of the lingua franca of East Africa at the elementary level. Contact hours supplemented by language lab sessions. Emphasis on written expression, reading comprehension, and oral fluency.

Note: Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

Visual & Environmental Studies 72. Sound Cinema
Adam Hart

Tuesday and Thursday, 10:00am – 11:00am

This course will provide a historical survey of global film in the postwar era, focusing on “new cinemas” and “new waves” of the 1960s. This course will cover a wide range of national movements, from Italian Neorealism and the French Nouvelle Vague to stylistically (and often politically) radical cinemas in Latin America, Japan, and Africa, as well as the United States.

Note: Required for all students concentrating in Film Studies. This course has mandatory weekly film screening Wednesday, 7-10PM and a weekly section to be arranged.

Credits: 4

Yoruba AA. Elementary Yoruba
John Mugane

TBA

Yoruba is spoken in the West African countries of Nigeria, Benin Republic, and parts of Togo and Sierra Leone, therefore constituting one of the largest single languages in sub-Saharan Africa. Yoruba is also spoken in Cuba and Brazil. Students will acquire the Yoruba language at the basic or elementary level.

Note: Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

Yoruba BA. Intermediate Yoruba
John Mugane

TBA

Continuation of Yoruba A. Yoruba is spoken in the West African countries of Nigeria, Benin Republic, and parts of Togo and Sierra Leone, therefore constituting one of the largest single languages in sub-Saharan Africa. Yoruba is also spoken in Cuba and Brazil. Students will acquire the Yoruba language at the basic or elementary level.

Note: Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

Spring 2015

Faculty of Arts & Sciences

African and African American Studies 98a. Junior Tutorial - African Studies
Ingrid Monson and other members of the Department

Hours to be arranged

Students wishing to enroll must petition the Director of Undergraduate Studies for approval, stating the proposed project, and must have the permission of the proposed instructor. Ordinarily, students are required to have taken some coursework as background for their project.

Prerequisite: Completion of African and African American Studies 11, or a substitute course approved by the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

Half course

African and African American Studies 119x. Chocolate, Culture, and the Politics of Food
Carla Denny Martin

Monday and Wednesday, 2:00pm, and a weekly section to be arranged

This course will examine the sociohistorical legacy of chocolate, with a delicious emphasis on the eating and appreciation of the so-called “food of the gods.” Interdisciplinary course readings will introduce the history of cacao cultivation, the present day state of the global chocolate industry, the diverse cultural constructions surrounding chocolate, and the implications for chocolate’s future of scientific study, international politics, alternative trade models, and the food movement. Assignments will address pressing real world questions related to chocolate consumption, social justice, responsible development, honesty and the politics of representation in production and marketing, hierarchies of quality, and myths of purity.

Half course

African and African American Studies 137. Literature, Oratory, Popular Music and the Politics of Liberation
Biodun Jeyifo

Wednesday, 1:00pm – 3:30pm

Against the historic background of the civil rights struggles in the United States and the decolonizing liberation struggles in Africa and the Caribbean, this course explores how utopian or emancipatory aspirations in diverse genres and media like literature, oratory, and popular music impact people of different racial groups, gendered identities and social classes. Among the authors, public intellectuals and performers whose works we will explore are Ralph Ellison and James Brown, Wole Soyinka and Fela Kuti, Derek Walcott and Bob Marley, and Toni Morrison and Aretha Franklin.

Half course

African and African American Studies 140x. Film, Fiction and Diaspora
Biodun Jeyifo

Thursday, 1:00pm – 3:30pm

 

An exploration of recent fiction and films on the African and Caribbean immigrant communities of Europe and North America.

Half course

African and African American Studies 160. Christianity, Identity, and Civil Society in Africa
Jacob Olupona

Thursday, 10:00am – 12:00pm

This course is a historical survey of the centuries-old Christian traditions in Africa. It begins with an outline of the trajectory of Christianity’s origins and presence in Africa from its beginning in ancient Mediterranean lands through the early period of European missionaries to the contemporary period. The course provides the ethnography of the old mission churches, indigenous independent African churches, and contemporary evangelical and Pentecostal Charismatic movements. The course explores the role of Christianity in relation to historical, cultural, social, and material realities of the African continent. It examines a broad range of topical issues related to conversion, missionization, and the development and growth of Christian agencies in Africa in relation to the construction of social, theological, and religious identities, as well as Christianity’s response to cultural pluralism, nationhood, citizenship, and civil society.

Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 2337.

Half course

African and African American Studies 162. Indigenous Religious Traditions and Modernity: Seminar
Jacob Olupona

Thursday, 4:00pm – 6:00pm

This seminar explores historical, theoretical, methodological, and conceptual issues central to the study of indigenous religions of the world. It examines the critique of indigeneity and explores emerging topics about the role that religion plays in indigenous peoples’ lives, communities, and societies. Special topics will explore issues related to land, environment, conversion, health, the state, gender, aggression, violence, justice, and human rights. The seminar examines the interface of indigenous religions and modernity, colonial and postcolonial conditions, and local and global forces that shape the practices of indigenous traditions in various regions of the world.

Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3703.

Half course

African and African American Studies 196x. Contemporary Africa and Sustainable Development
Patrick Vinck

Thursday, 2:00pm – 4:00pm

How do we understand development in Africa? This introductory course explores the question of sustainable development through a number of methods and perspectives, such as education, health, governance, (post-)conflict, and human rights. The course will examine the challenges of development, understood as the interaction between economic, environmental, political, and social processes. Students will gain the tools needed to examine African contexts today, including policy choices and the use of indicators and comparative analysis.

Half course

African and African American Studies 209b. Africa Rising? New African Economies/Cultures and Their Global Implications
George Paul Meiu

Monday, 12:00pm – 1:30pm, 6:00pm – 7:30pm

In a story titled Africa Rising (2011), The Economist argued that the continent epitomizes both the “transformative promise of [capitalist ] growth and its bleakest dimensions. This workshop will explore Africa’s changing place in the world – and the new economies, legalities, socialities, and cultural forms that have arisen there. It will also interrogate the claim that the African present is a foreshadowing of processes beginning to occur elsewhere; that, therefore, it is a productive source of theory about current conditions world-wide. The workshop, open to faculty and students, will meet Mondays from 6:00-7:30. 15 students will be permitted to take it as a course; they will also meet on Mondays, 12:00-1:30. Grades will be based on participation and a term essay.

Half course

African and African American Studies 212. Entrepreneurship in Africa
Jacob Olupona

Tuesday, 10:00am – 12:00pm

This course is designed to help students develop an understanding of the socio-economic revolution in the emerging African market. The goal will be to inspire and equip budding social entrepreneurs with knowledge and skills specific to context, challenges and innovation in enterprises that advance the continent with strong social impact. Designed as a seminar course, and team taught by faculty from across the Harvard schools, each session will focus on a theme – Agriculture & Food, Energy, Healthcare and Education – that affect development across the African Continent. The course will explore the unique challenges and opportunities of launching and growing an enterprise in the African context. Students will examine conditions in North, West, East, Central and Southern Africa and study how the current environments – political, social, technological and economic – can impact entrepreneurs’ approach to growth, scalability and partnerships as they launch new businesses or social ventures. The course will explore questions such as how social entrepreneurship theory manifests in practice, how Africa’s challenges are identified and solutions developed, the evolving role of leadership, ethics, governments, and social sector development in Africa and how entrepreneurs can leverage their ideas to create systems and policy level social change in Africa. The course will meet weekly including a 1-hour weekly group section focused on a final project. Students will work in teams to produce a final project business plan for a social enterprise or a strategy paper that addresses a business and development need specific to a region in Africa. The course will be open for cross-registration to all Harvard graduate students, limited by capacity to undergraduate students.

Half course

BPH 322. Study of Epidemiologic and Biological Characteristics of HIV Viruses in Africa
Phyllis Kanki

TBD

This course seeks to examine the transmission, control, and evolution of the HIV Virus in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using an interdisciplinary focus as a framework, students will examine how biological and epidemiologic characteristics of the disease are developing and evolving within the African context.

Half course

Classical Studies 149. The Idea of Egypt in Greek Literature
Yvona K. Trnka-Amrhein

Tuesday and Thursday, 10am

To the Greek imagination, Egypt was a land of wealth, antiquity, and arcane knowledge. It was also a foreign and exotic world where everything was reversed. The contradictions and complexities of the Greek view of Egypt provide rich material for exploring the Hellenic response to foreign culture. This class will consider this material with particular attention to questions of how different ideas of Egypt developed and functioned in the Greek imagination, why this was so, and what this reveals about Greek culture and literature. It will explore texts from different genres and periods of Greek literature which present different views of Egypt. When possible, the historical and social situation, Greek material culture, and Egyptian evidence will be drawn in as important context. In studying these texts, we will especially consider how much their treatments of Egypt were conditioned by literary needs and/or how much they reflect real knowledge of Egyptian culture and history. By engaging with the theoretical literature on Greeks and the foreign, we will reevaluate the position of Egypt as an “other,” a mirror, or an object of fascination.

Half course

Culture and Belief 41. Gender, Islam, and Nation in the Middle East and North Africa
Afsaneh Najmabadi

Monday, Wednesday and Friday, 12pm

This course will focus on how concepts of woman and gender have defined meanings of religious and national communities in the Islamic Middle East and North Africa. It will survey changes in these concepts historically through reading a variety of sources—religious texts and commentaries, literary and political writings, books of advice, women’s writings, and films—and will look at how contemporary thinkers and activists ground themselves differently in this historical heritage to constitute contesting positions regarding gender and national politics today.

Note: This course fulfills the requirement that one of the eight General Education courses also engage substantially with Study of the Past.

Half course

Economics 1393. Poverty and Development
Nathan J. Nunn

Monday and Wednesday, 10:00am – 11: 30am

We will consider a number of important questions in the field of development economics: Why are some countries so rich and others so poor? What factors have determined which countries prosper? Which are the root causes and which are the proximate causes of economic underdevelopment? Can these factors be changed with specific economic policies? If so, what are they and how are they best implemented? Are there country-specific characteristics that determine economic fate? Or, is prosperity just the result of luck? Does the enjoyment of the rich somehow depend on the continuing suffering of the poor? We will consider these questions and more. The course is intended to not only provide a general overview of the dominant views about economic development and policy, but to also provide students a sense of the most recent research in the field. For this reason, the course will go beyond the usual textbook summary of the field. Students will also examine recent journal articles that have made important contributions to the field of development economics. In the course, a particular effort is made to link the theories and empirical evidence to the real world.

Note: Writing requirement: A research paper is required. This course meets the concentration writing requirement.

Prerequisite: Economics 1010a1, 1010a2, (or 1011a) and 1010b (or 1011b). It is recommended that students have taken Economics 1123 or equivalent.

Half course

Egyptian 300. Reading and Research in Egyptology
Peter Der Manuelian

TBD

Old Egyptian or Middle Egyptian Texts

Note: This course must be taken for letter grade.

Credits: Half course

Egyptian 150. Voices from the Nile: Ancient Egyptian Literature in Translation
Peter Der Manuelian

Monday and Wednesday, 11:00am

For Undergraduates and Graduates. Examines several literary genres, from the Pyramid Age through at least the New Kingdom (ca. 2500-1000 BCE), including royal decrees, autobiographies, the Pyramid Texts, legal documents, letters to the living (and dead), love stories and poetry, military texts, religious rituals, and tomb robber court trial transcripts. Special emphasis on classical tales of the Middle Kingdom (“The Shipwrecked Sailor,” “The Story of Sinuhe,” etc.). Lectures, class discussion; no prerequisites. Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 2131.

Half course

French 174. Mediterranean Crossings: Exiles, Migrants and Refugees
Verena A. Conley

Monday, 3:00pm – 5:00pm

The Mediterranean has long been the locus of a turbulent history and of vast population movements. This course will focus specifically on the period since the middle of the twentieth century, that is, since decolonization in North Africa and the Middle East. Civil wars, political strife and economic hardship push many into voluntary, forced or even metaphoric exile, lead to massive migrations and produce refugees in record numbers. This course will study some of these movements with a triple focus on exiles, migrants and refugees, as seen through literary works and film. We will ask what artistic practices contribute and how they mediate these contexts.

Half course

Freshman Seminar 25t. AIDS in Africa
Myron Essex

Monday, 1:00pm – 3:00pm

HIV/AIDS has infected or killed more than sixty million people, and no vaccine is expected within five to ten years. About two-thirds of current infections are in ten percent of the world’s population in sub-Saharan Africa, where few patients receive life-saving treatment. Explores dimensions of AIDS in Africa including the evolution and epidemiology of HIV, the pathobiology of AIDS, prevention of infection, and treatment of disease. Encourages multidisciplinary approaches, using country-specific illustrations of successful interventions.

Note: Open to Freshmen only.

Half course

Government 1197. The Political Economy of Africa
James Robinson and Robert H. Bates

Monday, Wednesday, 10:00am

The basic social science literature on Africa’s development. Particular emphasis on political economy.

Half course

Islamic Civilizations 172. Knowledge and Authority in Muslim Societies
Ousmane Oumar Kane

Friday, 2:00pm – 4:00pm

This seminar will investigate the ways in which the production of knowledge affects the construction of authority in the Islamic world. It will look at how various forms of religious knowledge are acquired, legitimated, transmitted and/or contested within Muslim communities. Several types of knowledge will be: exoteric knowledge based on the Koran and other Islamic sciences, mystical knowledge as developed by the Sufis, and talismanic knowledge. Ulama trained in the exoteric sciences derived their authority from the conventional knowledge of the Koran, and religious sciences. Sufi masters derived theirs from their purported ability to explain the hidden meanings of the Koran, to provide spiritual training and guide the disciple in the path toward spiritual fulfillment. Finally, the credibility of talisman makers rested largely on their ability to use religious texts for purposes such as healing and bringing luck. Of course, the boundaries between these figures of authority are not rigid and some of them may engage in the activities of the other. The first part of the seminar will focus on pre-colonial Muslim societies and the second part on the impact of Western hegemony on the transmission of knowledge and construction of authority in the postcolonial Islamic world. Seminar participants will compare and contrast historical and contemporary experiences of transmission of knowledge and production of authority in various parts of the World of Islam and investigate the historical linkages between these regions.

Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3370.

Half course

Islam in African History
Ousmane Oumar Kane

Tuesday and Thursday, 1:00pm

As of 2009 according to the Pew Charitable Trust Survey of the Global Muslim population, 241 million Muslims lived south of the Sahara. This is about 15 percent of the Muslim global population. The course is designed to provide an understanding of the spread of Islam and the formation and transformation of Muslim societies in Sub-Saharan Africa. The course is organized in two parts. The first part of the course will focus on the history of Islamization of Africa, and topics will include the ways in which Islam came to Africa, the relationships of Islam to trade, the growth of literacy in Arabic and Ajami, the rise of clerical classes and their contribution to State formation in the pre-colonial period. The second part of the course will address Muslim responses to European colonial domination, and the varieties of Islamic expressions in the post-independence period (rise of Islamist, Shiite and Salafi jihadi movements) and Muslim globalization. In addition to the lectures, the course will include film showing, and two discussion sections: one in English and one in Arabic.

Note: Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 3365.

Half course

History 76c. Major Themes in World History: Colonialism, Imperialism, and Post-Colonialism
Hue-Tam Ho Tai

Wednesday, 2:00pm – 4:00pm

A general introduction to theories of imperialism, nationalism, and post-colonialism. Case studies to include Asia and Africa. Will combine the study of theory with examination of particular anti-colonial and anti-imperialist movements.

Half course

History 1701. West Africa from 1800 to the Present
Emmanuel K. Akyeampong

Tuesday and Thursday, 11:00am, and a weekly section to be arranged

The course explores the internal dynamics of West African states from 1800, and West Africa’s relations with the wider world. Innovations in science, technology and finance made the 19th century an era of social and economic opportunity and of political experimentation; a phase curtailed by European imperialism. The course examines African perspectives on colonialism, the two world wars, nationalism, and the transfer of political power. We will review post-colonial political economies and the search for workable political and economic models.

Half course

History 2708. Sources, Methodology, and Themes in African History: Seminar
Emmanuel K. Akyeampong

Wednesday, 2:00pm – 4:00pm

Seminar to equip graduate students with the necessary tools for archival research and fieldwork, as well as to introduce them to recent approaches in the historiography.

Prerequisite: A graduate field on Africa.

Half course

History 60l. The European Scramble for Africa: Origins and Debates
Steven Michael Press

Monday, 3:00pm – 5:00pm

This course examines why and how Europeans claimed control of roughly 70% of the African continent in the late nineteenth century. Students will engage with historiographical debates ranging from the national (e.g. British) to the topical (e.g. the role of international law). Equally important, students will interrogate some of the primary sources on which debaters have rested their arguments. Key discussions include: the British occupation of Egypt; the autonomy of French colonial policy; the mystery of Germany’s colonial entry; and, not least, the notorious Berlin Conference of 1884-1885.

Half course

Human Evolutionary Biology 1540. Human Migration
Noreen Tuross

Tuesday, 1:00pm – 3:00pm

The course will explore human migration at several scales, time depths and data sources, including the movement of humans out of Africa and the complex movements of the first farmers across Europe. We will explore the impacts that climates and disease burden have had on human migrations, and discuss recent movements of people and the reasons for migratory behavior in humans. in addition, a personal migration story will be developed by the class.

Half course

Social Studies 98lc: Global Climate Change
Lauren Coyle

Hours to be arranged

Global scientific communities now widely regard climate change as one of the most pressing challenges to our present and future. As a problem of truly planetary scale, climate change poses a host of interrelated issues that run to the heart of modern society. This course examines the ways in which global climate change generates complications for notions of environmental governance, political community, national sovereignty, economic development, demographic stability, eco-sociality, cultural vitality, and ecological sustainability. How, historically, has “climate change” come to be recognized as a significant problem within a fraught terrain of politics, science, and culture? What has been at stake for various actors in debating the nature, extent, or even mere existence of climate change? Once taken as a central problem of our time, how have various local, national, and transnational bodies endeavored to assess and mitigate it?

Half course

Societies of the World 38. Pyramid Schemes: The Archaeological History of Ancient Egypt
Peter Der Manuelian

Monday and Wednesday, 11:00am, and a weekly section to be arranged

Surveys ancient Egyptian pharaonic civilization. Emphasizes Egyptian material culture: pyramids, temples, tombs, settlements, and artifacts. Explores major developmental themes that defined the Egyptian state: the geographical landscape, kingship, social stratification, and religion. Follows a chronological path with excursions into Egyptian art, history, politics, religion, literature, and language (hieroglyphs). Also touches on contemporary issues of object repatriation, archaeology and cultural nationalism, and the evolution of modern Egyptology. Includes field trips to the Egyptian collections of the Peabody Museum and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, along with immersive 3D computer models in Harvard’s Visualization Center. No prior experience in Egyptology expected.

Note: This course fulfills the requirement that one of the eight General Education courses also engage substantially with Study of the Past.

Half course

 

Harvard Medical School

ME715.J: Clinical Topics in Global Health
Ranvir Singh Dhillon, Brett Dee Nelson

Tuesday and Thursday, 6:00pm – 9:00pm

There is a clear and pressing need for clinicians trained in the prevention and management of diseases found in developing countries. “Clinical Topics in Global Health” introduces students to the evidence-based knowledge and skills they will need to be effective clinicians in resource-limited settings. Ten evening sessions, led by Harvard faculty who practice clinically in developing countries in Africa, will orient students to the most important global health problems, explore each of these conditions with particular focus on clinical practice, and provide practical guidance for students interested in pursuing further training or careers in global health. Topics covered will include the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, including malnutrition, malaria, diarrheal illness, perinatal disease, HIV/AIDS, TB, and chronic non-communicable diseases. The elective will explore key concepts relevant to the delivery of clinical services in resource-limited settings. The elective will also include discussion of clinical issues particularly relevant to populations affected by humanitarian crisis, including refugees, internally displaced persons, and orphans. Teaching methods will be tailored to each clinical topic and will include lectures, practical skills sessions, case discussions, and ongoing reinforcement of core material. Selected guest speakers will address current innovations in global health practice. Course Notes: Motivated students will have the option to complete a mentored scholarly project. To ensure course effectiveness, the submission of a course evaluation and completion of an online pre- and post-course knowledge assessment (not graded) are a requirement for this course. Enrollment is limited, and course director signature will be required. Interested students should submit a brief statement of interest (several paragraphs, not to exceed 500 words) to the course directors. Given the clinical nature of the course, enrollment preference will be given to students in their clinical years of training.

1 Credit

HT934.0 Introduction to Global Medicine: Bioscience, Technologies, Disparities, Strategies
Michael M. J. Fischer, Byron Joseph Good, Mary-Jo Delvecchio Good, David Shumway Jones

Thursday, 1:00pm – 3:00pm

This course is an exploration of basic themes in social medicine via a specific examination of issues in global medicine. The course takes as its challenge to understand new paradigms for global health that focus on providing complex medical services to treat complex health conditions (e.g. multi-drug resistant TB, HIV/AIDS, and mental health problems) in low resource settings. Special attention will be given to the development of new technologies or adapting existing technologies in ways that enable new solutions to global health problems, as well as overcoming barriers to translation of medical technologies for use in settings of great need. The course will address classic themes of social inequalities and health disparities, as well as such issues as patenting and the development and delivery of pharmaceuticals or other biotechnologies in international context. The course will include presentations by Harvard faculty involved in global health, basic or clinical research with a global reach, or medical humanitarian activities, as well as class discussion.

Cross listed w/HST.930 at MIT.

2 Credits

 

Graduate School of Design

20th Century African Cities
Felipe Hernandez

Wednesday, 3:00pm – 6:00pm

Most capital cities in Africa were designed and built during European colonization. Although capital cities were originally modest in size, they were important centres for the distribution of African produce to the rest of the world: African cities were part of a well-established -yet continually expanding- global market. In order to serve the purpose of colonial productivity, colonial planners adopted modernist ideas of functional urban zoning to segregate different activities as well as different groups of people. After independence, a process that took place during the second half of the 20 Century, cities grew larger very quickly. The new governments of independent nations made efforts to modernize cities, through the construction of urban infrastructure and modern buildings. The principles of modern planning and modern architecture were re-appropriated to serve a different purpose, no longer to support colonial networks but to trade in the name of the nation -modernist master Plans were designed in order to optimise cities, making them competent in the global market they have always helped to support.

4 Credits

 

Harvard Law School

Understanding Mandela
Charles J. Ogletree Jr.

Monday and Tuesday, 1:00pm – 2:30pm

This course will examine the 95 year history of the accomplishments, challenges, and achievements of former President of South Africa, Nelson Mandela.  Mandela was born 95 years ago in a small village and had a very difficult time being raised as a young man. As he has written in his book The Long Walk to Freedom and said in speeches, being an African growing up in South Africa was not an easy task. This course will examine some of the issues that Mandela encountered as a youth in South Africa, his activity as a young man, his marital relationships, his political involvement, and his ultimate decision to run for and be elected as the first democratically elected president of the Republic of South Africa who happened to be an African native.  In addition to the discussions that will be held about Mandela, we will also hear from those who personally knew him, worked with him, were influenced by him, and even those who disagreed with him and the work he did in the Republic in South Africa.

3 Credits

 

Harvard School of Public Health

GHP 552. Section 4: Leadership Development in Global Health: Health System Strengthening Towards Universal Health Coverage
Frank Nyonator

Wednesday, 3:30pm – 5:20pm

This course outlines the challenges for Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in Africa through the lens of Ghana. While households are often seen as the primary producers of health, governments are making efforts to move available health services closer to households within communities. Strengthening health systems is essential for ensuring progress toward universal health coverage (UHC). The course will highlight the experience of Ghana in ensuring equitable access to essential health services through community-based health planning and services (CHPS) and other initiatives, and in providing financial protection for the poor through the National Health Insurance Scheme. The sessions will focus on country-specific political, economic, social and historical context, which interacted to make these policy initiatives possible. The course will enhance the importance of securing financial sources and improving health systems management. Finally, challenges encountered and implications for other African countries will be shared.

1.25 Credits

 

Extension School

AAAS E-119 Chocolate, Culture, and the Politics of Food
Carla Martin

Wednesday, 5:30pm – 7:30pm

This course examines the socio-historical legacy of chocolate, with a delicious emphasis on the eating and appreciation of the so-called food of the gods. Interdisciplinary course readings introduce the history of cacao cultivation, the present day state of the global chocolate industry, the diverse cultural constructions surrounding chocolate, and the implications for chocolate’s future of scientific study, international politics, alternative trade models, and the food movement. Assignments address pressing real-world questions related to chocolate consumption, social justice, responsible development, honesty and the politics of representation in production and marketing, hierarchies of quality, and myths of purity.

4 Credits

HIST E-1915 Africa and Africans: The Making of a Continent in the Modern World
Caroline Elkins

Online only; required sections to be arranged

Understanding Africa as it exists today requires an understanding of the broader historical trends that have dominated the continent’s past. This course provides a historical context for understanding issues and problems as they exist in contemporary Africa. It offers an integrated interpretation of sub-Saharan African history from the middle of the nineteenth century and the dawn of formal colonial rule through the period of independence until the present time. Particular emphasis is given to the continent’s major historical themes during this period. Selected case studies are offered from throughout the continent to provide illustrative examples of the historical trends. The recorded lectures are from the 2012 Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences course Societies of the World 26.

4 Credits

ANTH E-1000 Pyramid Schemes: The Archaeological History of Ancient Egypt
Peter Der Manuelian

Online only; required sections to be arranged

This course is a survey of ancient Egyptian pharaonic civilization. It emphasizes Egyptian material culture: pyramids, temples, tombs, settlements and cities, art masterpieces, and objects of daily life. The course explores major development themes that defined the Egyptian state: the geographical landscape, kingship, social stratification, craftsmanship, and religion, including mortuary beliefs. Our chronological path includes excursions into Egyptian art, history, politics, religion, literature (hieroglyphs), and the evolution of modern Egyptology. The course also touches on contemporary issues of object repatriation, and archaeology and cultural nationalism. Local students may participate in field trips to the Egyptian collections of Harvard’s Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, along with immersive 3-D computer model viewing of the Giza Pyramids in Harvard’s Visualization Center. The recorded lectures are from the Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences course Societies of the World 38.

4 Credits