Courses

African Language Program

Harvard University, through the Department of African and African American Studies (AAAS), boasts the world’s foremost African Language Program, with over 30 languages offered.  Established in 2003, the African Language Program offers instruction in more than ten languages every semester.  African languages can be taken to fulfill the foreign language requirement for Harvard College. These languages are a core part of the African Studies Track in the Department of African and African American Studies (AAAS) and relate well to a variety of courses within Harvard College, and other constituents of Harvard University.

For more information on the African Language Program, please visit the AAAS website.

Fall 2016

Faculty of Arts and Sciences

African & African American Studies 11. Introduction to African Studies
Jacob Olupona

Thursday, 4:00pm-6:00pm

This course introduces students to the general outlines of African archeology, history and geography, as well as key concepts in the study of African health, social life , economic situation, arts, and politics. Our aim is to give students a fundamental vocabulary and interdisciplinary methodology for the study of Africa. Throughout, we assume that Africa is not a unique isolate but a continent bubbling with internal diversity, historical change, and cultural connections beyond its shores. The course is open to all students who are interested in exploring various dimensions of African life and cultures in ancient and modern periods.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R. African Language Tutorials
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of an African language at the elementary, intermediate, and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy. Any language not listed as a course is taught under this number.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.a Amharic
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Amharic at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.a1 Afrikaans
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Afrikaans at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.a2 Hassaniyah
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Hassaniyah at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.a3 Tshiluba
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Tshiluba at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.a4 Malagasy
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Malagasy at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.a5 Jamaican Patois
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Jamaican Patois at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.a6 Bemba
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Bemba at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.b Bamanakan
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Bamanakan at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.c Cape Verdean Creole
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Cape Verdean Creole at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.d Chichewa
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Chichewa at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.d Chichewa
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Chichewa at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.e Dinka
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Dinka at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.g Haitian Creole
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Haitian Creole at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.h Hausa
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Hausa at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.i Igbo
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Igbo at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.j Kinyarwanda
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Kinyarwanda at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.k Luganda
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Luganda at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.l Oromo
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Oromo at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.m Somali
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Somali at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.n Tigrinya
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Tigrinya at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.O Wolof
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Wolof at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.p Xhosa
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Xhosa at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.q Zulu
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Zulu at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.s Krio
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Krio at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.t Shona
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Shona at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.s Sudanese Arabic
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Sudanese Arabic at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.v Pulaar
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Pulaar at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.w Ibibio
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Ibibio at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.x Setswana
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Setswana at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.x Setswana
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Setswana at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.y Kikongo
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Kikongo at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.z Lingala
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Lingala at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African & African American Studies 103Y. Histories of Racial Capitalism
TBA

Thursday, 2:00-4:00pm

This seminar takes as its starting point the insistence that the movement, settlement, and hierarchical arrangements of people of African descent is inseparable from regimes of capital accumulation. It builds on the concept of “racial capitalism,” which rejects treatments of race as external to a purely economic project and assumptions of racism as externalities, cultural overflows, and aberrations from the so-called real workings of capitalism. Although historical in scope, we also draw on works of anthropology, sociology, and political economy to investigate the connections between race, racism, and capitalism from the eighteenth century to the present. With a focus on the African Diaspora, this course will cover topics such as racial slavery, labor in Jamaica, indebtedness in Haiti, black capitalism in Miami, development in Africa, mass incarceration, and the contemporary demand for racial reparations.

Credits: 4

African & African American Studies 105X. Anthropology and Africa
George Paul Meiu

Thursday, 1:00pm-3:00pm

Africa has occupied a central place in the making of anthropology as a discipline. If early ethnographic studies of African contexts generated leading theories of society, contemporary anthropologists made livelihoods on the continent key sites for understanding the political, economic and cultural dynamics of modernity and global capitalism. And, while anthropological discourses at times have been complicit in the making of dominant ideologies, they have also played a central role in critiquing hegemonic tropes and unraveling their effects. This course explores the relationship between, on the one hand, the discourses, practices, and politics of anthropology as a discipline and, on the other hand, “Africa” as an object of knowledge, an ideological category, a source of identity and collective consciousness, and a geo-political context of life. Students will explore how lives, subjectivities, and intimacies on the continent mediate and are shaped by global historical processes and how anthropologists have inhabited and tried to grasp such contexts. Throughout this course, students will acquire a critical conceptual vocabulary and a set of rigorous analytic skills that will allow them to think deeper about historical and cultural phenomena in Africa and about the political potentials of various forms of knowledge production. We ask: What do ethnographies of Africa offer us by means of understanding the world at large? And what may anthropology offer us by way of crafting futures in Africa and beyond?

Credits: 4

African & African American Studies 187. African Religions
Jacob Olupona

Tuesday, 2:00pm-4:00pm

This course is a basic introduction to the history and phenomenology of traditional religions of the African peoples. Using diverse methodological and theoretical approaches, the course will explore various forms of experiences and practices that provide a deep understanding and appreciation of the sacred meaning of African existence: myth, ritual arts, and symbols selected from West, East, Central, and Southern Africa

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 209A. Africa Rising? New African Economies/Cultures and Their Global Implications
Jean Comaroff and John Comaroff

Mondays, 12-1:30pm; 6:00pm-8:00pm

In a story titled Africa Rising (2011), The Economist argued that the continent epitomizes both the “transformative promise of [capitalist ] growth and its bleakest dimensions.” This workshop will explore Africa’s changing place in the world – and the new economies, legalities, socialities, and cultural forms that have arisen there. It will also interrogate the claim that the African present is a foreshadowing of processes beginning to occur elsewhere; that, therefore, it is a productive source of theory about current conditions world-wide. The workshop, open to faculty and students, will meet Mondays from 6:00-7:30. 15 students will be permitted to take it as a course; they will also meet on Mondays, 12:00-1:30. Grades will be based on participation and a term essay.

Credits: 4

Anthropology 2861. Colonial Departures (Graduate Seminar in General Education)
Mary Steedly

Monday, 1:00pm-3:00pm

Following World War II, the fabric of Euro-American empire in Asia and Africa began to unravel. Through revolutionary violence, nonviolent movements or diplomatic negotiation, new nations asserted their independence from colonial rule. This course examines colonialism’s 20th century heyday, decline and aftermath, giving particular attention to local anticolonial struggles and to the many forms the postcolonial condition may take. This is an interdisciplinary seminar focusing on the experiences of colonization and decolonization rather than their institutional histories.

Credits: 4

Biological Sciences in Public Health 322. Study of Epidemiological and Biological Characteristics of HIV Viruses in Africa
Phyllis Kanki

TBA

TBA

Credits: 4 

Gikuyu AA. Elementary Gikuyu
John Mugane

TBA

Gikuyu is a Bantu language spoken by Kenya’s most populous ethnic group. The Gikuyu are among Africa’s most recognized peoples because of the Mau Mau freedom fighters who were mainly Gikuyu. Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

Gikuyu BA. Elementary Gikuyu
John Mugane

TBA

Gikuyu is a Bantu language spoken by Kenya’s most populous ethnic group. The Gikuyu are among Africa’s most recognized peoples because of the Mau Mau freedom fighters who were mainly Gikuyu. Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

Gikuyu BB. Elementary Gikuyu
John Mugane

TBA

Gikuyu is a Bantu language spoken by Kenya’s most populous ethnic group. The Gikuyu are among Africa’s most recognized peoples because of the Mau Mau freedom fighters who were mainly Gikuyu. Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

French 70.C Introduction to French Literature III: The Francophone World
Mylene Priam

Monday and Wednesday, 12:00pm-1:00pm

Studies literature, and film from Sub-Saharan Africa, the Maghreb and the French West Indies. Discussions centered on questions of cultural identities, diglossia, colonization, diaspora, trauma and memory.

Credits: 4

Government 20. Foundations of Comparative Politics
Steven Levitsky

Tuesday and Thursday,  10:00am-11:00am

Provides an introduction to key concepts and theoretical approaches in comparative politics. Major themes include the causes of democratization, economic development, ethnic conflict, and social revolutions; as well as the role of the state, political institutions, and civil society. Examines and critically evaluates different theoretical approaches to politics including modernization, Marxist, cultural, institutionalist, and leadership-centered approaches. Compares cases from Africa, Asia, Europe, Middle East and Latin America to provide students with grounding in the basic tools of comparative analysis.

Credits: 4

History 1700. History of Sub-Saharan Africa to 1860
Emmanuel Akyeampong

Tuesday and Thursday, 11:00am-12:00pm

Survey of sub-Saharan Africa to 1860, with attention to the range of methodologies used in writing early African history, including oral history, archaeology, and anthropology. Will address themes of the impact of climate change on migration and settlement, trade and commerce, state formation, slavery, and the impact of Islam and Christianity on the continent. Will provide a methodological and historiographical framework in which more specific historical processes and events may be placed and understood.

Credits: 4

History of Art and Architecture 195 E. Africa and Europe: Histories of Exchange
Suzanne Blier and David Blindman

Monday,  1:00pm-3:00pm

TBA

Credits: 4

History 87. Health, Disease and Ecology in African History
Emmanuel Akyeampong

Wednesday, 1:00pm-3:00pm

Examines the history of disease and health in sub-Saharan Africa from the 19th century to recent times, exploring African and western concepts of health, disease and healing. Illustration through discussion of case studies of individual diseases, including malaria/sickle cell trait, trypanosomiasis, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, alcoholism, AIDS, and onchocerciasis, and the public health policies affecting them.

Credits: 4

Social Studies 98OA. Human Rights in Africa
Gwyneth McClendon

Wednesday, 1:00pm-3:00pm

To what extent are human rights discussed, contested and protected in Sub-Saharan Africa? This course addresses this question by taking seriously the enormous variation across Sub-Saharan African countries. Among the topics we discuss are: To what extent does a human rights agenda have an indigenous history and support on the continent? To what extent have African independence and other social movements made use of human rights claims and to what effect? To what extent has the human rights agenda in Sub-Saharan Africa involved socio-economic rights versus civil and political rights? To what extent has the agenda involved issues facing women and members of the LGBT community? And to what extent and how should non-African governments and organizations be involved in promoting a human rights agenda in these countries? We examine variation in colonial institutions, contemporary state-society relations, democratization and social identity groups in order to understand more about how configurations of power, state institutions and civil society condition the promotion of human rights in Sub-Saharan African countries.

Credits: 4

SOCWORLD 26. Africa and Africans: The Making of a Continent in the Modern World
Caroline Elkins

Tuesday and Thursday, 11:00am-12:00pm

Understanding Africa as it exists today requires an understanding of the broader historical trends that have dominated the continent’s past. This course will provide an historical context for understanding issues and problems as they exist in contemporary Africa. It will offer an integrated interpretation of sub-Saharan African history from the middle of the 19th century and the dawn of formal colonial rule through the period of independence until the present time. Particular emphasis will be given to the continent’s major historical themes during this period. Selected case studies will be offered from throughout the continent to provide illustrative examples of the historical trends.

Credits: 4

Swahili AA. Elementary Swahili
John Mugane

Monday, Wednesday, Friday; 10:00am-11:00am

A study of the lingua franca of East Africa at the elementary level. Contact hours supplemented by language lab sessions. Emphasis on written expression, reading comprehension, and oral fluency.  Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

Swahili BA. Intermediate Swahili
John Mugane

Monday, Wednesday, Friday; 10:00am-11:00am

A study of the lingua franca of East Africa at the elementary level. Contact hours supplemented by language lab sessions. Emphasis on written expression, reading comprehension, and oral fluency.  Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

Swahili 101AR. Reading in Swahili
John Mugane

TBA

Advanced reading in Swahili

Credits: 4

Twi 101AR. Reading in Twi
John Mugane

TBA

Prerequisite: Twi B or equivalent.

Credits: 4

Twi AA. Elementary Twi
John Mugane

TBA

Twi is one of the regional languages of the Akan speaking peoples of Ghana, constituting the largest ethnic group in Ghana. Twi is fast becoming the lingua franca of the country. This course aims to help students acquire the Twi language at the basic or elementary level.  Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

Twi BA. Intermediate Twi
John Mugane

TBA

Continuation of Twi A. Twi is one of the regional languages of the Akan speaking peoples of Ghana constituting the largest ethnic group in Ghana. Twi is fast becoming the lingua franca of the country. The Akan people are well known for their art and culture, especially the traditional colorful Kente cloth.  Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

Yoruba AA. Elementary Yoruba
John Mugane

TBA

Yoruba is spoken in the West African countries of Nigeria, Benin Republic, and parts of Togo and Sierra Leone, therefore constituting one of the largest single languages in sub-Saharan Africa. Yoruba is also spoken in Cuba and Brazil. Students will acquire the Yoruba language at the basic or elementary level.  Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

Yoruba BA. Intermediate Yoruba
John Mugane

TBA

Continuation of Yoruba A. Yoruba is spoken in the West African countries of Nigeria, Benin Republic, and parts of Togo and Sierra Leone, therefore constituting one of the largest single languages in sub-Saharan Africa. Yoruba is also spoken in Cuba and Brazil. Students will acquire the Yoruba language at the basic or elementary level.  Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit

Credits: 4

Yoruba 101AR. Reading in Yoruba
John Mugane

TBA

Advanced reading in Yoruba.

Credits: 4

Harvard Divinity School

Harvard Divinity School 3366. Islam in Modern West Africa
Ousmane Oumar Kane

Tuesday and Thursday, 1:00pm-2:00pm

At the beginning of European colonial rule in the early 20th century, less than a half of the West African population was Muslim. By independence from European colonial rule in the early 1960s, close to 90 percent of many West African countries have been Islamized. More people converted to Islam during the six decades of European colonial rule than in the preceding thousand year of slow Islamization. The aim of this lecture course is to analyze contemporary West African Muslim societies with particular reference to the twenty and twenty first centuries. This course will look at how colonialism created a favorable ground for the spread of Islam. It will also address the main institutions and movements of modern Islam in West Africa as well as the postcolonial transformations in education, gender, the arts, interfaith relations etc. In addition to the discussion section in English, this lecture course will also offer a section in Arabic in which participants will be initiated to the intellectual production of Muslim intellectuals in Africa. Jointly offered as Islamic Civilizations 176.

Credits: 4

Harvard Graduate School of Design

History and Theory 4369. Architecture, Urbanism and National Identity in Muslim Geographies
Sibel Bozdogan

TBA

Commonly (and carelessly) used terms like “Islamic architecture” or “Islamic city” remain highly contentious because they designate monolithic, faith-based conceptualizations that fall short of reflecting the actual historical, cultural and geographic diversity of Muslim societies and built environments across the globe. Almost two centuries after the unleashing of initial reforms by local dynastic rulers and/or by European colonial powers (France and Britain in particular) to modernize local institutions, architectures and cities along European models, the states and peoples of this vast region (extending from Morocco to Indonesia) are still struggling to come to terms with a complex and contentious history of modernization and everything from borders to identities still seem to be in flux. After many experiments with modern architecture and urbanism in the 20th century, as well as various “national styles” and regionalist discourses proposed along the way, today the architectural and urban scene reflects the trans-national forces of global markets and neo-liberal urbanism on the one hand, and the rise of political Islam and the reassertion of Muslim identity on the other. At the same time, landscapes of war and destruction, zones of conflict, displacement of large populations and the increasing permanence of refugee camps have now emerged as new topics that seem poised to preoccupy design disciplines for many decades to come. Addressing the above from a trans-national and comparative perspective and following a loosely chronological structure spanning 19th and 20th centuries, this lecture/ discussion course looks at the role of architectural, urban and spatial practices in the making (and continuous re-negotiation) of modern national identities across predominantly Muslim lands extending from North Africa to the Asian Subcontinent. Avoiding the western/non-western binary, which privileges the “west” as the exclusive source of modern transformations in other parts of the world, it explores how imported discourses of modern architecture and urbanism are contested, selectively appropriated and transformed in the periphery, reflecting the complex internal dynamics and the specific national projects of these countries in their post-imperial and/or post-colonial encounters with modernity.  Thematic lectures will explore such topics as: legacies of colonial urbanism, the making of national capitals, grand projects of infrastructural modernization, politics of heritage, regionalist practices, urban informality, spaces of globalization, mosque construction and the architectures of conflict and displacement among others. Lectures will be complemented by more focused, in depth discussion of selected texts and projects to provoke a comparative understanding of the experiences of different countries, regions and experiments. A final research paper required.

Credits: 4

Harvard Law School

Harvard Law School. Property and Land Use Regulation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Issues and Perspectives
McKonnen Firew Ayano

Thursday, 5:00pm-7:00pm

In this reading group we will identify main issues and perspectives on land and rural poverty as well as the legal and institutional interventions prescribed to address those issues and interrogate the ideas and assumptions behind the interventions. With texts on the leading theories of law and African development in the background, we will examine issues and perspectives on property and land use regulation in Africa by situating them within broader contemporary thinking on law and economic development. The main questions that we will be asking include, how rural poverty is understood; how it relates to land and land use regulation; what sort of legal and institutional interventions have been prescribed; how those prescriptions are implemented; and, what are their outcomes on the rural economy and society in light of empirical land registration and agrarian reform programs in select countries. Professor William Alford will join us from time to time. In addition, we will have a session with a senior expert at the United States Agency for International Development who will share insights and experience from the field based on projects and program implemented in various African countries.

Credits: 1 

Harvard Law School 2326. Making Rights Real: The Ghana Project
Lucie White

Wednesday, 7:00pm-9:00pm

Required Clinic Component: Making Rights Real: The Ghana Project (2 winter clinical credits). This clinic and course are bundled; your enrollment in the clinic will automatically enroll you in this required course.

Additional Pre-/Co-Requisites: None.

By Permission: Yes. Applications to the clinic are due by 5:00pm on August 15, 2016.

Add/Drop Deadline: August 30, 2016.

LLM Students: LLM students may apply to this clinic by submitting an application. Applications are due by August 15, 2016.

Multi-Semester: This is a fall-winter-spring course (1 fall credit + 1 winter credit + 1 spring credit).

This course is an academic workshop that wraps around and is concurrent with an on-going field-based clinical project in which students work with Ghanaian partners on economic and social rights realization on the ground. The course — both the theoretical and practical dimensions — are situated at the intersection of economic and social rights, development, and, human rights advocacy. Consult the clinical description for a more elaborate account of the partnership, the project’s evolution, and the specific health rights which the 2017 partnership is likely to target

Credits: 3

Harvard Law School 8021. International Human Rights Clinic
Tyler Giannini

TBD

Required Class Component: Students in the fall clinic must enroll in either Human Rights Advocacy (2 fall classroom credits) or Armed Conflict and Humanitarian Protection Clinical Seminar (2 fall classroom credits). Students who enroll in the fall clinic will be enrolled in one of the required courses by the Office of Clinical and Pro Bono Programs. Students are guaranteed a seat in one of these two required courses, but are not guaranteed their first choice. Students may enroll in only one of the two available courses.

LLM Students: LLM students may apply to this clinic by submitting an application.

Placement Site: HLS.

Through the International Human Rights Clinic, students link theory with practice and learn core skills necessary to become effective and thoughtful human rights advocates. Students work on pressing and timely human rights problems around the world, in collaboration with leading international and local human rights organizations. Those in the Clinic have the opportunity to explore a range of approaches to advance the interests of clients and affected communities. For example, students interview survivors and document abuse; undertake legal, factual, and strategic analysis; and interact with media to build campaigns and advocate for human rights–all under the close supervision of the Clinic’s human rights practitioners. Students work in small teams on a variety of human rights projects and cases. When appropriate, students travel to investigate abuses or pursue advocacy outside Cambridge, participate in sessions before intergovernmental bodies and arguments before courts, and formulate policy to promote respect for human rights principles and the rule of law. In any given term, the Clinic delves into a wide range of issues, including extrajudicial executions, torture, and criminal justice; the unlawful use of cluster munitions and other weapons; civilian protection in armed conflict; human rights and the environment; business and human rights; the role of health professionals in torture; Alien Tort Statute litigation; transitional justice; civil and political rights; economic, social, and cultural rights; and many more. Our clinicians have expertise in numerous regions and countries, including in Latin America, Southern Africa, Eastern and Central Europe, Southeast Asia, and the United States. This wide range of skills, as well as thematic and geographic knowledge, exposes students to a variety of strategies and innovative techniques for promoting and protecting human rights.

 

Fall clinic students must take either Human Rights Advocacy (2 fall classroom credits) OR Armed Conflict and Humanitarian Protection Clinical Seminar (2 fall classroom credits). While each course is focused on a particular subject matter, both teach the key skills of human rights practitioners and include simulations related to fact-finding and field investigations, media work, and/or negotiation and legislative work. Clinical seminar selection and enrollment occurs once a student has enrolled in the fall clinic and is handled by the Office of Clinical and Pro Bono Programs.

Credits: 2;3;4

 

Spring 2017

Faculty of Arts and Sciences

African and African American Studies 119X. Chocolate, Culture, and the Politics of Food
Carla Martin

TBA

This course will examine the sociohistorical legacy of chocolate, with a delicious emphasis on the eating and appreciation of the so-called “food of the gods.” Interdisciplinary course readings will introduce the history of cacao cultivation, the present day state of the global chocolate industry, the diverse cultural constructions surrounding chocolate, and the implications for chocolate’s future of scientific study, international politics, alternative trade models, and the food movement. Assignments will address pressing real world questions related to chocolate consumption, social justice, responsible development, honesty and the politics of representation in production and marketing, hierarchies of quality, and myths of purity.

Credits:4

African & African American Studies 192X. Religion and Society in Nigeria
Jacob Olupona

Thursday, 4:00-6:00pm

The seminar examines the historical development of religion in Nigeria and explores its intersection with ethnic identity, culture, and society in pre-colonial, colonial, and contemporary periods. The course provides an understanding of various cultural tradition, historical events, and social forces that have shaped Nigeria’s religious express. Many topical issues will be explored such as indigenous religious culture, Christian and Muslim identities, civil religion, and civil society and democratization, as well as religion and politics in present-day Nigeria

Credits: 4 

African and African American Studies 209B. Africa Rising? New African Economies/Cultures and Their Global Implications
Jean Comaroff and John Comaroff

Monday, 12:00-1:30pm; 6:00pm-7:30pm

In a story titled Africa Rising (2011), The Economist argued that the continent epitomizes both the “transformative promise of [capitalist] growth” and its bleakest dimensions. This workshop will explore Africa’s changing place in the world – and the new economies, legalities, socialities, and cultural forms that have arisen there. It will also interrogate the claim that the African present is a foreshadowing of processes beginning to occur elsewhere; that, therefore, it is a productive source of theory about current conditions world-wide. The workshop, open to faculty and students, will meet Mondays, 6:00-8:00. 15 students will be permitted to take it as a course; they will also meet on Mondays, 12:00-1:30. Grades will be based on participation and a term essay.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 212. Entrepreneurship in Africa
Jacob Olupona

Tuesday, 11:00am-1:00pm

This course is designed to help students develop an understanding of the socio-economic revolution in the emerging African market. The goal will be to inspire and equip budding social entrepreneurs with knowledge and skills specific to context, challenges and innovation in enterprises that advance the continent with strong social impact. Designed as a seminar course, and team taught by faculty from across the Harvard schools, each session will focus on a theme – Agriculture & Food, Energy, Healthcare and Education – that affect development across the African Continent. The course will explore the unique challenges and opportunities of launching and growing an enterprise in the African context. Students will examine conditions in North, West, East, Central and Southern Africa and study how the current environments – political, social, technological and economic – can impact entrepreneurs’ approach to growth, scalability and partnerships as they launch new businesses or social ventures. The course will explore questions such as how social entrepreneurship theory manifests in practice, how Africa’s challenges are identified and solutions developed, the evolving role of leadership, ethics, governments, and social sector development in Africa and how entrepreneurs can leverage their ideas to create systems and policy level social change in Africa. The course will meet weekly including a 1-hour weekly group section focused on a final project. Students will work in teams to produce a final project business plan for a social enterprise or a strategy paper that addresses a business and development need specific to a region in Africa. The course will be open for cross-registration to all Harvard graduate students, limited by capacity to undergraduate students.

Credits: 4 

African and African American Studies 217.Graduate Seminar: Themes in Modern African History
Caroline Elkins

Tuesday, 2:00pm-4:00pm

This proseminar introduces students to some of the main themes and core literature in the history of modern Africa. The focus of this proseminar will be on the major questions that have dominated the historiography, as well as current and future trends in the field. Sources and methods will be an implicit part of this course, as will theory, ranging from classical theorists, such as Marx and Weber, to more recent theorists such as the Comaroffs, Chakrabarty, and others. This course is designed to let students sample ways of interpreting the histories of modern Africa, and to provide a framework that will enable them to think critically when reading the field on their own.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 97. Sophomore Tutorials
Giovanna Micconi

Thursday, 1:00pm-3:00pm

This course will examine the complexity of contemporary racial and ethnic experience in the United States, focusing on self-identified “mixed-race” groups and voluntary immigrant groups from Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean (e.g. from Brazil, Cape Verde, Ethiopia, Haiti, Puerto Rico, and Nigeria). Interdisciplinary course readings will introduce key theoretical issues in the social sciences and humanities, such as cultural relativism, the social construction of race, class, gender, sexuality, and ethnicity, and the negotiation of identity in diaspora and minority settings. Assignments will include both written work and social engagement with local communities resulting in multimedia projects.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 98A. Junior Tutorial-African Studies
Ingrid Monson

TBA

Students wishing to enroll must petition the Director of Undergraduate Studies for approval, stating the proposed project, and must have the permission of the proposed instructor. Ordinarily, students are required to have taken some coursework as background for their project.

Credits: 4 

Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology 311QC. Unmet Medical Needs and Translational Solutions
Jagesh Shah and Catherine Dubreuil

Monday-Friday, 9:00am-5:00pm

The central goal of modern biomedical research is to understand the cause of human disease and to use this knowledge to develop approaches that lessen human suffering. The path from identifying an unmet medical need through the development of interventions that impact disease is a complex process demanding the best of medicine and science, strong project management, significant financial support, and persistence. In this course, students will learn to evaluate how unmet medical needs can be “translated” into new clinical practices. The course will feature assessment of unmet medical needs, case studies of successes and failures in translation, seminars from translational medicine experts, and workshops that engage students in substantive and intense discussions on current topics. Lecturers will include innovators who have successfully led the development of therapeutic interventions, leaders in basic science who have helped uncover the underlying causes of disease and investigators who have led clinical trials that lead to the approval of new interventions.

This course is application-based; applications are typically due in mid-January. The HMS portion of the course is limited to 30 students. This course will meet Mondays through Fridays in June. Dates: June 13-24. There is also an optional Global component that takes place in Durban, South Africa (same application). A limited number of students will be selected for this part of the course. Dates: June 25-July 1.

Credits: 2

History 2708. Sources, Methodology, and Themes in African History: Graduate Seminar
Emmanuel Akyeampong

Tuesday, 1:00pm-3:00pm

Seminar to equip graduate students with the necessary tools for archival research and fieldwork, as well as to introduce them to recent approaches in the historiography.

Credits: 4

Gikuyu AB. Elementary Gikuyu
John Mugane

TBA

Gikuyu is a Bantu language spoken by Kenya’s most populous ethnic group. The Gikuyu are among Africa’s most recognized peoples because of the Mau Mau freedom fighters who were mainly Gikuyu. Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

Gikuyu BB. Elementary Gikuyu
John Mugane

TBA

Gikuyu is a Bantu language spoken by Kenya’s most populous ethnic group. The Gikuyu are among Africa’s most recognized peoples because of the Mau Mau freedom fighters who were mainly Gikuyu. Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

Government 94AF. Contemporary Africa
Robert Bates

Tuesday, 2:00pm-4:00pm

TBA

Credits: 4

Government 94DZ. Is Democracy Possible Everywhere?
Daniel Ziblatt

Tuesday, 1:00pm-3:00pm

Is democracy an obtainable ideal in all societies? This course introduces students to political science and sociological theories of democratization and offers the opportunity to apply these theories to diverse contexts, including the contemporary Middle East, Africa, and East Asia, and the history of Latin America, the U.S., and Europe. The quality of democracy in today¹s rich capitalist societies such as the United States is also examined.

Credits: 4

Swahili AB. Elementary Swahili
John Mugane

Monday, Wednesday, Friday; 10:00am-11:00am

A study of the lingua franca of East Africa at the elementary level. Contact hours supplemented by language lab sessions. Emphasis on written expression, reading comprehension, and oral fluency.  Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

Swahili BB. Intermediate Swahili
John Mugane

Monday, Wednesday, Friday; 10:00am-11:00am

A study of the lingua franca of East Africa at the elementary level. Contact hours supplemented by language lab sessions. Emphasis on written expression, reading comprehension, and oral fluency.  Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

Swahili 101BR. Reading in Swahili II
John Mugane

TBA

Advanced reading in Swahili

Credits: 4

Twi 101BR. Reading in Twi II
John Mugane

TBA

Prerequisite: Twi 101ar or equivalent.

Credits: 4

Twi AB. Elementary Twi
John Mugane

TBA

Twi is one of the regional languages of the Akan speaking peoples of Ghana, constituting the largest ethnic group in Ghana. Twi is fast becoming the lingua franca of the country. This course aims to help students acquire the Twi language at the basic or elementary level.  Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

Twi BB. Intermediate Twi
John Mugane

TBA

Continuation of Twi A. Twi is one of the regional languages of the Akan speaking peoples of Ghana constituting the largest ethnic group in Ghana. Twi is fast becoming the lingua franca of the country. The Akan people are well known for their art and culture, especially the traditional colorful Kente cloth.  Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

Yoruba AB. Elementary Yoruba
John Mugane

TBA

Yoruba is spoken in the West African countries of Nigeria, Benin Republic, and parts of Togo and Sierra Leone, therefore constituting one of the largest single languages in sub-Saharan Africa. Yoruba is also spoken in Cuba and Brazil. Students will acquire the Yoruba language at the basic or elementary level.  Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.

Credits: 4

Yoruba BB. Intermediate Yoruba
John Mugane

TBA

Continuation of Yoruba A. Yoruba is spoken in the West African countries of Nigeria, Benin Republic, and parts of Togo and Sierra Leone, therefore constituting one of the largest single languages in sub-Saharan Africa. Yoruba is also spoken in Cuba and Brazil. Students will acquire the Yoruba language at the basic or elementary level.  Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit

Credits: 4

Yoruba 101BR. Reading in Yoruba II
John Mugane

TBA

Advanced reading in Yoruba.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R. African Language Tutorials
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of an African language at the elementary, intermediate, and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy. Any language not listed as a course is taught under this number.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.a Amharic
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Amharic at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.a1 Afrikaans
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Afrikaans at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.a2 Hassaniyah
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Hassaniyah at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.a3 Tshiluba
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Tshiluba at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.a4 Malagasy
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Malagasy at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.a5 Jamaican Patois
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Jamaican Patois at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.a6 Bemba
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Bemba at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.b Bamanakan
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Bamanakan at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.c Cape Verdean Creole
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Cape Verdean Creole at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.d Chichewa
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Chichewa at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.d Chichewa
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Chichewa at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.e Dinka
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Dinka at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.g Haitian Creole
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Haitian Creole at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.h Hausa
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Hausa at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.i Igbo
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Igbo at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.j Kinyarwanda
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Kinyarwanda at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.k Luganda
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Luganda at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.l Oromo
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Oromo at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.m Somali
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Somali at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.n Tigrinya
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Tigrinya at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.O Wolof
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Wolof at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.p Xhosa
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Xhosa at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.q Zulu
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Zulu at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.s Krio
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Krio at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.t Shona
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Shona at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.s Sudanese Arabic
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Sudanese Arabic at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.v Pulaar
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Pulaar at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.w Ibibio
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Ibibio at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.x Setswana
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Setswana at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.x Setswana
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Setswana at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.y Kikongo
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Kikongo at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

African and African American Studies 90R.z Lingala
John Mugane

TBA

Individualized study of Lingala at the elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Contact hours with language coach. Emphasis on literacy.

Credits: 4

Harvard Law School

Harvard Law School 2326. Making Rights Real: The Ghana Project
Lucie White

Wednesday, 7:00pm-9:00pm

Required Clinic Component: Making Rights Real: The Ghana Project (2 winter clinical credits). This clinic and course are bundled; your enrollment in the clinic will automatically enroll you in this required course.

Additional Pre-/Co-Requisites: None.

By Permission: Yes. Applications to the clinic are due by 5:00pm on August 15, 2016.

Add/Drop Deadline: August 30, 2016.

LLM Students: LLM students may apply to this clinic by submitting an application. Applications are due by August 15, 2016.

Multi-Semester: This is a fall-winter-spring course (1 fall credit + 1 winter credit + 1 spring credit).

This course is an academic workshop that wraps around and is concurrent with an on-going field-based clinical project in which students work with Ghanaian partners on economic and social rights realization on the ground. The course — both the theoretical and practical dimensions — are situated at the intersection of economic and social rights, development, and, human rights advocacy. Consult the clinical description for a more elaborate account of the partnership, the project’s evolution, and the specific health rights which the 2017 partnership is likely to target

Credits: 3

Harvard Law School 8021. International Human Rights Clinic
Tyler Giannini

TBD

Required Class Component: Students in the fall clinic must enroll in either Human Rights Advocacy (2 fall classroom credits) or Armed Conflict and Humanitarian Protection Clinical Seminar (2 fall classroom credits). Students who enroll in the fall clinic will be enrolled in one of the required courses by the Office of Clinical and Pro Bono Programs. Students are guaranteed a seat in one of these two required courses, but are not guaranteed their first choice. Students may enroll in only one of the two available courses.

LLM Students: LLM students may apply to this clinic by submitting an application.

Placement Site: HLS.

Through the International Human Rights Clinic, students link theory with practice and learn core skills necessary to become effective and thoughtful human rights advocates. Students work on pressing and timely human rights problems around the world, in collaboration with leading international and local human rights organizations. Those in the Clinic have the opportunity to explore a range of approaches to advance the interests of clients and affected communities. For example, students interview survivors and document abuse; undertake legal, factual, and strategic analysis; and interact with media to build campaigns and advocate for human rights–all under the close supervision of the Clinic’s human rights practitioners. Students work in small teams on a variety of human rights projects and cases. When appropriate, students travel to investigate abuses or pursue advocacy outside Cambridge, participate in sessions before intergovernmental bodies and arguments before courts, and formulate policy to promote respect for human rights principles and the rule of law. In any given term, the Clinic delves into a wide range of issues, including extrajudicial executions, torture, and criminal justice; the unlawful use of cluster munitions and other weapons; civilian protection in armed conflict; human rights and the environment; business and human rights; the role of health professionals in torture; Alien Tort Statute litigation; transitional justice; civil and political rights; economic, social, and cultural rights; and many more. Our clinicians have expertise in numerous regions and countries, including in Latin America, Southern Africa, Eastern and Central Europe, Southeast Asia, and the United States. This wide range of skills, as well as thematic and geographic knowledge, exposes students to a variety of strategies and innovative techniques for promoting and protecting human rights.

 

Fall clinic students must take either Human Rights Advocacy (2 fall classroom credits) OR Armed Conflict and Humanitarian Protection Clinical Seminar (2 fall classroom credits). While each course is focused on a particular subject matter, both teach the key skills of human rights practitioners and include simulations related to fact-finding and field investigations, media work, and/or negotiation and legislative work. Clinical seminar selection and enrollment occurs once a student has enrolled in the fall clinic and is handled by the Office of Clinical and Pro Bono Programs.

Credits: 2;3;4

Harvard Law School. Comparative Constitutional Law
Vicki  Jackson

Tuesday and Wednesday; 5:00pm-7:00pm

Note: This is one of the 1L required international or comparative courses and is only available to HLS first-year and LLM students.

Exam Type: Any Day Take-Home

The course will cover a series of topics arising in the comparative study of constitutional systems. Concentrating on constitutional structure and law in the United States and in such other countries as Australia, Canada, Colombia, France, Germany, Great Britain, India, Israel, Japan, and South Africa, it will examine selected problems of both constitutional design and constitutional adjudication. Early in the course we will consider the varying foundations and structures of judicial review of the constitutionality of laws (e.g., how are courts that engage in constitutional review structured, how are their judges appointed, what is the source of their authority to engage in constitutional review). We will also, early in the course, likely consider the constitutional law regulating availability of abortion in the United States, Germany, Canada, Colombia, and Ireland. Other likely topics include (1) the relationships between “popular” branches of government and courts under constitutional regimes that permit legislative ‘override’ of constitutional decisions, (2) presidential compared to parliamentary systems of governance and whether/how constitutions should address “emergency” powers, (3) different forms of constitutional federalism, (4) approaches to protecting minority groups (for example, federalism, affirmative action for racial/ethnic/linguistic minorities, or group-based rights), (5) gender equality; (6) freedom of religion, (7) freedom of speech, and (8) positive social welfare rights.

Credits: 4

 Extension School

SOCWORLD 26. Africa and Africans: The Making of a Continent in the Modern World
Caroline Elkins

Tuesday and Thursday, 11:00am-12:00pm

Understanding Africa as it exists today requires an understanding of the broader historical trends that have dominated the continent’s past. This course will provide an historical context for understanding issues and problems as they exist in contemporary Africa. It will offer an integrated interpretation of sub-Saharan African history from the middle of the 19th century and the dawn of formal colonial rule through the period of independence until the present time. Particular emphasis will be given to the continent’s major historical themes during this period. Selected case studies will be offered from throughout the continent to provide illustrative examples of the historical trends.

Credits: 4